Clinical Research

Clinical Research

DHA for the developing infant:

  1. Martinez M. Tissue levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids during early human development. Pediatr, 1992. 120:S129-38.
  2. Lauritzen L, et al. The essentiality of long chain n-3 fatty acids in relation to development and function of the brain and retina. Prog Lipid Res, 2001. 40:1-94.
  3. Salem, Jr. N, et al. Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids, 2001. 36:945-59.
  4. Crawford MA. The role of essential fatty acids in neural development: implications for perinatal nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr, 1993. 57:703S-709S.
  5. Simopoulos AP, et al. Essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Ann Nutr Metab, 1999. 43(2): 127-30.
  6. Denomme J, et al. Directly Quantitated Dietary (n-3) Fatty Acid Intakes of Pregnant Canadian Women Are Lower than Current Dietary Recommendations. J Nutr, 2005. 135:206-11.
  7. Benisek D, et al. Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids by pregnant or lactating women in the United States. Obstet Gynecol, 2000. 95:S77-S78.
  8. Innis SM. Plasma and red blood cell fatty acid values as indexes of essential fatty acids in the developing organs of infants fed with milk or formulas. J Pediatr, 1992. 120:S78-86.
  9. Makrides M, et al. Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on breast milk composition. Eur J Clin Nutr, 1996. 50:352-7.
  10. Smit EN, et al. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2000. 62:335-40.
  11. Carlson SE, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid status of preterm infants at birth and following feeding with human milk or formula. Am J Clin Nutr, 1986. 44(6):798-804.
  12. Bitman J, et al. Comparison of the lipid composition of breast milk from mothers of term andpreterm infants. Am J Clin Nutr, 1983. 38:300-312.
  13. Dotson KD, et al. High-performance liquid chromatography of human milk triacylglycerols and gas chromatography of component fatty acids. Lipids, 1992. 27(11):933-939.
  14. Specker B, et al. Differences in fatty acid composition of human milk in vegetarian and nonvegetarian women: long-term effect of diet. J Ped Gastroent Nutr, 1987. 6:764-768.
  15. Auestad N, et al. Visual acuity, erythrocyte fatty acid composition, and growth term infants fed formulas with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for year. Pediatr Res, 1997. 41(1):1-10.
  16. Finley D, et al. Breast milk composition: fat content and fatty acid composition vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr, 1985. 41:787.
  17. Francois CA, et al. Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acids of milk. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998. 67(2):301-8.
  18. Harris W, et al. Will dietary n-3 fatty acids change the composition of human milk? Am J Clin Nutr, 1984. 40:780-785.
  19. Henderson TR, et al. Effect of pasteurization on long chain polyunsaturated acid levels and enzyme activities of human milk. J Pediatr, 1998. 132(5):A76-8.
  20. Putnam J, et al. The effect of variations in dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in human infants. Am J Clin Nutr, 1982. 36:106-114.
  21. Spear M, et al. Milk and blood fatty acid composition during two lactations same woman. Am J Clin Nutr, 1992. 56(1):65-70.
  22. Henderson RA, et al. Effect of fish oil on the fatty acid composition of human milk and maternal and infant erythrocytes. Lipids, 1992. 27(11):863-9.
  23. FAO/WHO Expert Committee. "Fats and oils in human nutrition," Food and Nutrition Paper. FAO, Rome, Italy. 1994. No.57. 49-55.
  24. Otto SJ, et al. Search for an LCP supplement for pregnant women. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 1997. 57(2):190.
  25. Connor WE, et al. Increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in human newborn infants by administration of sardines and fish oil during pregnancy. Lipids, 1996. 31(7):S183-7.
  26. Otto SJ, et al. The effect of different supplements containing docosahexaenoic acid on plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids of healthy non-pregnant women. Nutr Res, 2000. 20:917-927.
  27. Otto SJ, et al. The effect of supplementation with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid derived from single cell oils on plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids of pregnant women in the second trimester. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2000. 63:323-8.
  28. Jensen CL, et al. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of lactating women on the fatty acid composition of breast milk lipids and maternal and infant plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr, 2000. 71:292S-9S.
  29. van Houwelingen AC, et al. Essential fatty acid status in neonates after fish oil supplementation during late pregnancy. Br J Nutr, 1995. 74(5):723-31.
  30. Gibson RA, et al. Effect of increasing breast milk docosahexaenoic acid on plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acids and neural indices of exclusively breast fed infants. Eur J Clin Nutr, 1997. 51:578-84.
  31. Horwood LJ, et al. Breastfeeding and later cognitive and academic outcomes. Pediatr, 1998. 101:e9.
  32. Hart SL, et al. Brief Report: Newborn Behavior Differs with Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Breast Milk. J of Pediatric Psychology, 2005. 31:221-226.
  33. Cheruku SR, et al. Higher maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid during pregnantcy is associated with more mature neonatal sleep-state patterning. Am J Clin Nutr, 2002. 76(3):608-13.
  34. Decsi T, et al. N-3 fatty acids and pregnancy outcomes. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2005. 8:161-166.
  35. Helland IB, et al. Maternal Supplementation With Very-Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acids During Pregnancy and Lactation Augments Children's IQ at 4 Years of Age. Pediatrics, 2003. 111:e39-44.
  36. Jensen CL, et al. Effects of Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on Visual Function and Neurodevelopment of Breast-fed Infants. Pediatric Research, 2001. 49:448A.
  37. Jensen CL, et al., Effects of maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on visual function and neurodevelopment in breastfed term infants. Am J Clin Nutr, 2005. 82(1):1579-86.
  38. Jensen CL, et al. Effect of Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on Neuropsychological and Visual Status of Former Breast-fed Infants at Five Years of Age (abstr.). Pediatric Research, 2004. 49:181A.
  39. Cohen JT, et al. A Quantitative Analysis of Prenatal Intake of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cognitive Development. Am J Prev Med, 2005. 29(4):366-374.

DHA for maternal well-being:

  1. Smuts CM, et al. A randomized trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2003. 101 (3): 469-479.
  2. Hornstra G. Essential fatty acids in mothers and their neonates. Am J Clin Nutr, 2000. 71 (suppl):1262S-9S.
  3. Otto SJ, et al., Increased risk of postpartum depression symptoms is associated with slower normalization after pregnancy of the functional docosahexaenoic acid status. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2003. (69) 237-243.
  4. Hibbeln JR. Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers' milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a corss-national, ecological analysis. J Affect Disord, 2002. 69(1-3):15-29.
  1. Martinez M. Tissue levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids during early human development. Pediatr, 1992. 120:S129-38.
  2. Lauritzen L, et al. The essentiality of long chain n-3 fatty acids in relation to development and function of the brain and retina. Prog Lipid Res, 2001. 40:1-94.
  3. Salem, Jr. N, et al. Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids, 2001. 36:945-59.
  4. Hoffman, DR, et al. Effects of supplementation with omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on retinal and cortical development in premature infants. Am J Clin Nutr, 1993. 57(5 suppl): 807S-812S.
  5. Crawford MA. The role of essential fatty acids in neural development: implications for perinatal nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr, 1993. 57:703S-709S.
  6. Dutta-Roy AK. Transport mechanisms for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the human placenta. Am J Clin Nutr, 2000. 71:315S-22S.
  7. Clandinin MT, et al. Intrauterine fatty acid accretion rates in human brain: implications for fatty acid requirements. Early Hum Dev, 1980. 4:121-9.
  8. Putnam J, et al. The effect of variations in dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in human infants. Am J Clin Nutr, 1982. 36:106-114.
  9. Makrides M, et al. Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy? Lancet, 1995. 345 (8963):1463-8.
  10. Carlson SE, et al. Visual acuity and fatty acid status of term infants fed human milk and formulas with or without docosahexaenoate and arachidontae from egg yolk lecithin. Pediatr Res, 1996. 39(5):882-8.
  11. Innis SM, et al. Blood lipid docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid in term gestation infants fed formulas with high docosahexaenoic acid, low eicosapentaenoic acid fish oil. Lipids, 1996. 31(6):617-25.
  12. Kohn G, et al. Diet and essential fatty acid status of term infants. Acta Paediatr Suppl, 1994. 402:69-74.
  13. Horby Jorgensen M, et al. Effect of formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid on fatty acid status and visual acuity in term infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 1998. 26(4):412-21.
  14. Makrides M, et al. Fatty acid composition of brain, retina, and erythrocytes in breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr, 1994. 60(2):189-94.
  15. Agostoni C, et al. Neurodevelopmental quotient of healthy term infants at 4 months and feeding practice: the role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Pediatr Res, 1995. 38(2):262-6.
  16. Decsi T, et al. Growth, fatty acid composition of plasma lipid classes, and plasma retinol and alpha-tocopherol concentration in full-term infants fed formula enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Acta Paediatr, 1995. 84(7):725-32.
  17. Horwood LJ, et al. Breastfeeding and later cognitive and academic outcomes. Pediatr, 1998. 101:e9.
  18. Simopoulos AP, et al. Workshop on the essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. J Am Coll Nutr, 1999. 18(5): 487-489.
  19. Fats and Oils in Human Nutrition. Report of a joint expert consultation. 1994. WHO/FAO: Rome. 49-55.
  20. Koletzko B, et al. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and perinatal development. Acta Paediatr, 2001. 90(4):460-4.
  21. Birch EE, et al. A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Dev Med Child Neurol, 2000. 42(3):174-81.
  22. Willatts P, et al. Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formula on problem solving at 10 months of age. Lancet, 1998. 352(9129):688-91.
  23. Hoffman DR, et al. Visual function in breast-fed term infants weaned to formula with or without long-chain polyunsaturates at 4 to 6 months: a randomized clinical trial. J of Pediatr, 2003. 142 (6): 669-677.
  24. Birch EE, et al. A randomized controlled trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of formula in term infants after weaning at 6 weeks of age. Am J Clin Nutr, 2002. 75:570-80.
  25. Birch EE, et al. Visual acuity and the essentiality of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in the diet of term infants. Pediatr Res, 1998. 44(2):201-9.
  26. Birch EE, et al. Visual maturation of term infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acidsupplemented or control formula for 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr, 2005. 81:871-9.
  27. Morale SE, et al. Duration of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids availability in the diet and visual acuity. Early Human Development, 2005. 81(2):197-203.
  28. Forsyth JS, et al. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infant formula and blood pressure in later childhood: follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 2003. 326(7396):953.
  1. Crawford, M. Placental delivery of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids: implications for the lipid nutrition of preterm infants. Am J Clin Nutr, 2000. 71(1 Suppl):275S-84S.
  2. Hack M, and Taylor HG. Perintal brain injurty in preterm infants and later neurological function. JAMA, 2000. 284(15):1973-1974.
  3. Phylactos AC, et al. Erythrocyte cupric/zinc superoxide dismutase exhibits reduced activity in preterm and low-birthweight infants at birth. Acts Paediatr, 1995. 84(12):1421-5.
  4. Diersen-Schade DA, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid plus arachidonic acid enhance preterm infant growth, in Essential Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids: Invited Papers from the Fourth International Congress, E.A. Riemersma, et al., Editors. 1998. AOCS Press:Champaign, IL. 123-127.
  5. O'Connor DL, et al. Growth and development in preterm infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatrics, 2001. 108(2):359-371.
  6. Vanderhoof J, et al. Evaluation of a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplemented formula on growth, tolerance, and plasma lipids in preterm infants up to 48 weeks postconceptual age. J Pediatr Gastroenterol, 1999. 29:318-26.
  7. Vanderhoof J, et al. A multicenter long-term safety and efficacy trial of preterm formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Multicenter Study Group. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 2000. 31(2):121-7.